Askanesthetician's Blog

An esthetician explores skincare issues and concerns

Remembering Two Skincare Pioneers July 23, 2013

Recently two dermatologists who made groundbreaking contributions to the skincare industry passed away.  Both Dr. James Fulton and Dr. Sheldon Pinnell changed the skincare industry as we know making lasting and significant impacts in the field of dermatology and esthetics.

Dr. James Fulton

Dr. Fulton will probably be remembered best for his research and discoveries connected to acne.  He was the co-developer, with Dr. Albert Kligman, of Retin-A, and pioneered cosmetic surgical procedures in order reduce acne scars.

Skin Inc.‘s obituary outlines Dr. Fulton’s career:

Born in Ottumwa, Iowa to Alice Hermann Fulton and James Sr. (a one-time CEO of Cracker Jack), Fulton’s interest in dermatology stemmed from the acne struggles he endured as a pre-teen and throughout adulthood. He earned his bachelor of science and doctor of medicine degrees from Tulane University in 1965, and while there his academic achievements led to his induction into the prestigious Alpha Omega Alpha Honor Medical Society and Phi Beta Kappa Society. While in residency at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Dr. Fulton met his close friend and mentor Dr. Albert Kligman; together they co-developed Retin-A, a topical form of vitamin A. At the request of Phillip Frost, MD, he relocated to South Florida and earned a PhD in biochemistry under the noted dermatologist Harvey Blank, MD, from the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine in the early 1970s. Fulton and Blank developed benzoyl peroxide gel (Panoxyl) and topical erythromycin (E-Gel).

In the early 1970’s with his wife Sara, Fulton launched a successful chain of 12 acne clinics called Acne Healthcare Centers, opened the Acne Research Institute and developed and manufactured a line of patented skin care products under the AHC and Face Up brands in their FDA-approved manufacturing facilities. Here he invented a high-speed diamond fraise for dermabrasion and was the first to use estheticians in the medical office developing a paramedical esthetician training program.

In 1990, Fulton opened JEF Medical Group, a cosmetic surgery and dermatology practice where he pioneered fat transfer and laser surgery and was the first to use hyperbaric oxygen chambers for post-surgical recovery. In addition, Fulton and Sara co-founded Vivant Skin Care in 1990, a clinical skin care line rooted in Fulton’s patented vitamin A therapies.

Fulton served as mentor and role model for countless leaders in dermatology and esthetics across the nation. Most recently he was volunteer faculty at the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine’s Department of Dermatology and part of the internship program at St. Thomas University. A popular international speaker and teacher, he authored the definitive book Acne Rx and published more than 300 medical articles, the most recent ones being released earlier this year in the Journal of Investigative Dermatology and presented at the Skin of Color Seminar Series in New York City and the Orlando Dermatology & Aesthetic & Clinical Conference.

Fulton volunteered his dermatology services to His House Children’s Home, a private, nonprofit, faith-based foster children organization, to which he provided no-charge medical treatment to the children and hosted a yearly Thanksgiving luncheon. He actively split time between Flores Dermatology in Coral Gables where he continued to see patients weekly and his research lab at the Vivant Skin Care headquarters in Miami Lakes until taking ill in mid-June.

He was most proud of his beloved wife, Sara, who helped him with his PhD, and worked with him in research and in the medical office. She always attended medical meetings with him and helped with his teaching projects. Fulton always told her he couldn’t have done what he did without her. Among his noteworthy achievements were creating more than 50 original skin care formulations, stabilizing benzoyl peroxide in gel form, qualifying as a Full Fellow of the American Academy of Cosmetic Surgery, membership in the American Society of Lipo Suction Surgery and election to the Dermatology Foundation’s Leader Society.

Dr. Fulton passed away from colon cancer on July 4, 2013.

Dr. Sheldon Pinnell

Dr. Pinnell, whose research changed the use of topical antioxidants in the skincare industry forever, also passed away on July 4, 2013.

According to his obituary in Skin Inc.:

Sheldon Pinnell, MD, an internationally eminent scientist, dermatologist, leading scientist behind L’Oreal-owned SkinCeuticals, and J. Lamar Callaway professor emeritus of dermatology and chief emeritus of the division of dermatology at Duke University, passed away peacefully in Durham, NC, on Thursday, July 4, 2013. He was 76.

Pinnell’s investigative research has changed the way the world uses topical antioxidants today. As one of the founding fathers of topical antioxidants, he was the first to patent a stable form of vitamin C proven through peer-reviewed research to effectively penetrate skin, delivering eight times the skin’s natural antioxidant protection.

Before helping to shape the cosmeceutical industry, Pinnell led major advances in the understanding of skin biology and the parthenogenesis of skin diseases. Early in his career, he made seminal contributions to the understanding of Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome and the role of vitamin C in collagen biosynthesis. Pinnell has been globally recognized for his contributions to science and skin care, most recently receiving an honorary membership to the Society for Investigative Dermatology.

Over his lifetime, he also received numerous medical and scientific awards including the “Best Doctors in America, the international Who’s Who in Medicine and HealthcareWho’s Who in Science and Engineeringand Who’s Who in America. Pinnell has published more than 200 scientific articles in peer-reviewed journals on dermatology topics such as photoaging, collagen synthesis, UV protectiontopical vitamin C and other antioxidants. Pinnell also authored approximately 20 book chapters and holds10 patents.

“It is our greatest privilege to have been able to help Pinnell bring his discovery of topical antioxidants to life. Prior to the introduction of topical vitamin C in the early 1990s, skin care professionals were largely limited to sunscreens to protect against the deleterious effects of the sun. It was Pinnell who gave the medical community the confidence to transform the approach to at-home skincare. We are fortunate to have known Pinnell as a scientist, a family man and a dear friend. His life lessons and infectious spirit will remain with us forever,” said SkinCeuticals co-founders Alden Pinnell and Russell Moon.

Further Reading:

Image from parajunkee.com

 

The Vitamin C Breakdown February 27, 2012

Maybe you already know the Vitamin C basics – that when applied topically this skincare ingredient is an antioxidant, an anti-inflammatory, and a collagen simulator.  I’ve blogged in the past (see my post Great Skincare Ingredient: Vitamin C) about how much I love Vitamin C as part of a daily skincare routine.  Yet finding the right Vitamin C product for your skin can be confusing because of the numerous products on the market and different formulations of Vitamin C out there.  I hope this post will help clear up any confusion my readers may have about this subject.

Vitamin C Basics

As already mentioned above Vitamin C can have numerous benefits for the skin.  Not only does Vitamin C protect the skin since it is an antioxidant it can also control oily skin, hydrate, and help your sunscreen work better by shielding the skin from UV rays that your sunscreen misses.  But if you get a product that is too strong you can end up irritating your skin instead of helping it.  Or you could invest in a product whose formulation just isn’t effective and/or unstable.

There are numerous versions of Vitamin C formulations in skincare products.  Irregardless if the Vitamin C is from a natural or synthetic source all Vitamin C needs to be processed to some degree before it can be used in skincare products.  Synthetic Vitamin C ingredients are more readily available, are less expensive, can be more sustainable, and break down at a slower rate than natural forms of Vitamin C.  These facts can factor into a company’s decision about which form of Vitamin C to use in formulating their product.

In my research I’ve come across quite a few different forms of Vitamin C found in skincare products.  In this post I’ll discuss the following versions:  L-Ascorbic Acid, Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate (MAP), and Ascorbyl Palmitate.  Though you will come across other versions of Vitamin C in skincare products these three are widely used in skincare products.  Let’s look at each of these forms of Vitamin C up close.

L-Ascorbic Acid

L-Ascorbic Acid in skincare products is the closest form of Vitamin C to that found in our diets.  But before you think that this version of Vitamin C comes from an orange be aware that companies use a version that is synthesized in a manufacturing plant.  The upside to this version of Vitamin C is that it is an effective anti-aging ingredient that promotes collagen synthesis since it is the most potent form of Vitamin C used in skincare products.  Some studies have found that this version of Vitamin C prevents trans epidermal water loss (which is important in maintaining healthy skin).  The downside to this version of Vitamin C is that it can be unstable because of its low pH and can oxidize when exposed to air so you need to store it in a dark place.

Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate (MAP)

This version of Vitamin C is the most stable version of Vitamin C used in skincare products.  It equals L-ascorbic acid’s ability to synthesize collagen, and it can also brighten the skin (aka even out skin tone) and fight free radical damage.  Some experts believe that MAP is not as powerful as L-ascorbic acid in protecting the skin though it does increase collagen synthesis.

Ascorbyl Palmitate

Ascorbyl palmitate is a mixture of L-ascorbic acid and palm oil.  Because of this combination of ingredients this creates a stable, non-acidic, fat-soluble form of Vitamin C.  There are varying opinions about how effective this form of Vitamin C is.  In the winter/spring, 2012 issue of New Beauty magazine Dr. Nicholas Perricone says that this “vitamin C molecule is highly effective, stable in the jar and doesn’t oxidize like the acidic form.  It penetrates better and more rapidly, which causes stimulation of the fibroblasts, in turn creating new collagen and inhibiting wrinkle formation.”  (page 44)   But on the flip side Dr. Carl Thornfeldt, in his book New Ideal of Skin Health, has this to say about ascorbyl palmitate (page 165):

The most common of all analogs is the vitamin C ester known as ascorbyl 6-palmitate (AP).  This ester allegedly is released from the lipid palmitic acid by esterases in the stratum corneum.  However, a 10% concentration failed to increase the skin levels of LAA (L-ascorbic acid).  It is alleged to have antioxidant effect and it supposedly reduces UVB induced erythema by 50% when a 15% concentration of ascorbyl palmitate (Apal) is used.  However, … it suffers with a safety problem.  When applied to human skin it strongly promoted lipid peroxidation and cytotoxicity, which could be cancer causing.  Safety studies are still pending even though this data was published in 2006, and yet many products continue to use AP as an active ingredient.

In my opinion, if there is that much discrepancy in opinions about this form of Vitamin C I would err on the side of caution and avoid it.

Conclusion 

Before you run out to buy the first Vitamin C product you can find keep a few things in mind.  Once again I’ll quote from Dr. Thornfeldt’s book (page 165):

Vitamin C products, probably more than any other cosmeceutical, must have stability data and clinical trials using the final product to prove efficacy and safety.  Because of the highly effective reactive nature of LAA, product should begin being used as soon as possible after manufacture.  It is important to ask the distributor for the manufacture date of that lot.  Unfortunately because no federal control is mandates, many companies today in the cosmeceutical arena ask you to believe that somehow their product defies the laws of biochemistry and remains stable long after it was manufactured, when in reality oxidation begins immediately.

So how do you choose the best Vitamin C product?  Future Derm recently wrote a great post about Vitamin C products, including recommendations.

Sources and Further Reading:

 

Great Skincare Ingredient: Vitamin C April 19, 2010

 

It seems like everyday a different skincare company is announcing the discovery of a new and great antioxidant that is better than all the other antioxidants discovered so far.  Truly there is no “best” antioxidant.  It is great idea to use a variety of antioxidant in your skincare products.

Vitamin C is definitely an antioxidant worth looking for in skincare products.  This water-soluble antioxidant has a proven track record for being an effective skincare ingredient.  Not only does it protect the skin from free radical damage, it plays an important role in collagen production, it slows down the effects of sun damage on the skin, it helps boost the effectiveness of sunscreen, and over time it can brighten the skin.  And like all other antioxidants Vitamin C can reduce inflammation in the skin.  Frankly there is no reason not to give it a try.

There are many different forms of Vitamin C that you will find in skincare products.  The best forms of Vitamin C, which means these forms of Vitamin C are stable and effective, are: ascorbic acid, L-ascorbic acid, ascorbyl palmitate, sodium ascorbyl phosphate, retinyl ascorbate, tetrahexyldecyl ascorbate, and magnesium ascorbyl phosphate.  Vitamin C deteriorates in the presence of light so it is important to look for a closed, opaque container.  Skinceuticals sells a great Vitamin C serum in a non-opaque container.  They say that there form of Vitamin C will not breakdown in the presence of light. 

 

Vitamin C Products Worth Trying

 

 

 

Sources and Further Reading

 

 

 

And don’t forget: Don’t mix copper peptides and vitamin C –  using the two together, even if they are in separate products, just cancels out the effects of both.

 

No Mixing Allowed: Skincare Ingredient Combinations to Avoid February 13, 2010

So you’ve researched what skincare products to buy and finally made your purchase.   But did you know that if you use different skincare products at the same time you could actually cancel out the benefits of the very ingredients you purchased the product for?

Don’t mix copper peptides and vitamin C –  using the two together, even if they are in separate products, just cancels out the effects of both.

Don’t mix retinol and benzoyl peroxide – both ingredients are great for fighting acne but if they are used at the same time they simply counteract one another.

Don’t mix retinoids or hydroquinone with glycolic acid – once again if you mix these ingredients they become inactive. 

Hydroquinone and retinoids can only be combined together in specially formulated products like Tri-Luma (which is used to fight hyperpigmentation).

And sometimes too much of certain ingredients is just bad for your skin:

Be alert to signs of redness, irritation, or excessive and prolonged peeling if you use products with AHA (alpha hydroxy acids like lactic, glycolic, malic, etc.), vitamin C, and retinol all at once.  For instance all in one day you may use a cleanser with glycolic acid, a moisturizer with vitamin C, and a retinol cream or serum at night.  You may find that your skin becomes sensitive to the use of so many potent ingredients.  If that is the case cut out one or more of the products with the strong ingredients or stagger the use of the products (skip a day or use a product just once a week).

Source and Further Reading:

 

 

 
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