Askanesthetician's Blog

An esthetician explores skincare issues and concerns

Remembering Two Skincare Pioneers July 23, 2013

Recently two dermatologists who made groundbreaking contributions to the skincare industry passed away.  Both Dr. James Fulton and Dr. Sheldon Pinnell changed the skincare industry as we know making lasting and significant impacts in the field of dermatology and esthetics.

Dr. James Fulton

Dr. Fulton will probably be remembered best for his research and discoveries connected to acne.  He was the co-developer, with Dr. Albert Kligman, of Retin-A, and pioneered cosmetic surgical procedures in order reduce acne scars.

Skin Inc.‘s obituary outlines Dr. Fulton’s career:

Born in Ottumwa, Iowa to Alice Hermann Fulton and James Sr. (a one-time CEO of Cracker Jack), Fulton’s interest in dermatology stemmed from the acne struggles he endured as a pre-teen and throughout adulthood. He earned his bachelor of science and doctor of medicine degrees from Tulane University in 1965, and while there his academic achievements led to his induction into the prestigious Alpha Omega Alpha Honor Medical Society and Phi Beta Kappa Society. While in residency at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Dr. Fulton met his close friend and mentor Dr. Albert Kligman; together they co-developed Retin-A, a topical form of vitamin A. At the request of Phillip Frost, MD, he relocated to South Florida and earned a PhD in biochemistry under the noted dermatologist Harvey Blank, MD, from the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine in the early 1970s. Fulton and Blank developed benzoyl peroxide gel (Panoxyl) and topical erythromycin (E-Gel).

In the early 1970′s with his wife Sara, Fulton launched a successful chain of 12 acne clinics called Acne Healthcare Centers, opened the Acne Research Institute and developed and manufactured a line of patented skin care products under the AHC and Face Up brands in their FDA-approved manufacturing facilities. Here he invented a high-speed diamond fraise for dermabrasion and was the first to use estheticians in the medical office developing a paramedical esthetician training program.

In 1990, Fulton opened JEF Medical Group, a cosmetic surgery and dermatology practice where he pioneered fat transfer and laser surgery and was the first to use hyperbaric oxygen chambers for post-surgical recovery. In addition, Fulton and Sara co-founded Vivant Skin Care in 1990, a clinical skin care line rooted in Fulton’s patented vitamin A therapies.

Fulton served as mentor and role model for countless leaders in dermatology and esthetics across the nation. Most recently he was volunteer faculty at the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine’s Department of Dermatology and part of the internship program at St. Thomas University. A popular international speaker and teacher, he authored the definitive book Acne Rx and published more than 300 medical articles, the most recent ones being released earlier this year in the Journal of Investigative Dermatology and presented at the Skin of Color Seminar Series in New York City and the Orlando Dermatology & Aesthetic & Clinical Conference.

Fulton volunteered his dermatology services to His House Children’s Home, a private, nonprofit, faith-based foster children organization, to which he provided no-charge medical treatment to the children and hosted a yearly Thanksgiving luncheon. He actively split time between Flores Dermatology in Coral Gables where he continued to see patients weekly and his research lab at the Vivant Skin Care headquarters in Miami Lakes until taking ill in mid-June.

He was most proud of his beloved wife, Sara, who helped him with his PhD, and worked with him in research and in the medical office. She always attended medical meetings with him and helped with his teaching projects. Fulton always told her he couldn’t have done what he did without her. Among his noteworthy achievements were creating more than 50 original skin care formulations, stabilizing benzoyl peroxide in gel form, qualifying as a Full Fellow of the American Academy of Cosmetic Surgery, membership in the American Society of Lipo Suction Surgery and election to the Dermatology Foundation’s Leader Society.

Dr. Fulton passed away from colon cancer on July 4, 2013.

Dr. Sheldon Pinnell

Dr. Pinnell, whose research changed the use of topical antioxidants in the skincare industry forever, also passed away on July 4, 2013.

According to his obituary in Skin Inc.:

Sheldon Pinnell, MD, an internationally eminent scientist, dermatologist, leading scientist behind L’Oreal-owned SkinCeuticals, and J. Lamar Callaway professor emeritus of dermatology and chief emeritus of the division of dermatology at Duke University, passed away peacefully in Durham, NC, on Thursday, July 4, 2013. He was 76.

Pinnell’s investigative research has changed the way the world uses topical antioxidants today. As one of the founding fathers of topical antioxidants, he was the first to patent a stable form of vitamin C proven through peer-reviewed research to effectively penetrate skin, delivering eight times the skin’s natural antioxidant protection.

Before helping to shape the cosmeceutical industry, Pinnell led major advances in the understanding of skin biology and the parthenogenesis of skin diseases. Early in his career, he made seminal contributions to the understanding of Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome and the role of vitamin C in collagen biosynthesis. Pinnell has been globally recognized for his contributions to science and skin care, most recently receiving an honorary membership to the Society for Investigative Dermatology.

Over his lifetime, he also received numerous medical and scientific awards including the “Best Doctors in America, the international Who’s Who in Medicine and HealthcareWho’s Who in Science and Engineeringand Who’s Who in America. Pinnell has published more than 200 scientific articles in peer-reviewed journals on dermatology topics such as photoaging, collagen synthesis, UV protectiontopical vitamin C and other antioxidants. Pinnell also authored approximately 20 book chapters and holds10 patents.

“It is our greatest privilege to have been able to help Pinnell bring his discovery of topical antioxidants to life. Prior to the introduction of topical vitamin C in the early 1990s, skin care professionals were largely limited to sunscreens to protect against the deleterious effects of the sun. It was Pinnell who gave the medical community the confidence to transform the approach to at-home skincare. We are fortunate to have known Pinnell as a scientist, a family man and a dear friend. His life lessons and infectious spirit will remain with us forever,” said SkinCeuticals co-founders Alden Pinnell and Russell Moon.

Further Reading:

Image from parajunkee.com

 

Can Anyone Use Retin-A? October 11, 2012

Recently a long-time reader of this blog (thank you Louise for all your support!) asked me to address the issue of Retin-A use in my blog from a different angle than I have before.  So far the posts I’ve written about Retin-A have been an overview post on the subject (All About Retinol) and another post explaining why Retin-A remains the anti-aging superstar ingredient that it is (Back in Vogue: Retin-A).  Though this post will have some overlap with my past posts about Retin-A and retinol I do hope that this latest post will help explain how anyone can use Retin-A or retinol effectively and just how to do that.

I think it is best to start this post with a summary – what does Retin-A do and what is the difference between the different Vitamin A derived ingredients we see in skincare products?  Dr. Leslie Baumann does a good job of breaking things down:

First and foremost, retinoids speed the rate at which skin cells turn over, which means they thin the layer of dead skin cells and help keep healthy, younger-looking cells on the surface. Retinoids also promote the skin to produce more collagen while preventing the breakdown of existing collagen.This thickens the dermal layer of skin and helps minimize the appearance of lines and wrinkles. Here’s the lowdown on the different members of the retinoid family, which are all derivatives of vitamin A.

Beta carotene: If you eat too many carrots and your skin turns orangey yellow, it’s because you’ve ODed on beta carotene. (Don’t worry, it’s actually good for you.) This is a great antioxidant, so it’s important to get beta carotene from food. Don’t waste your money on topical creams with carrots or beta carotene because it does not absorb when applied to the skin.

2.Tretinoin (Retin-A): Perhaps the best known retinoid (and the gold standard for skin improvement), tretinoin got its start as an acne treatment before its inventor, Albert Kligman, MD, realized that patients on the medication had less wrinkles than those who were not. Dr. Kligman then developed Renova, a tretinoin cream that got FDA approval for the treatment of wrinkles. A little fact: Tretinoin does not cause sun sensitivity, however it is less effective when exposed to UV light, and this is why it’s best used at night. Other brand names of tretinoin now include Atralin (formulated with hydrating glycerin), Refissa, and Retin-A Micro.

3.Adapalene: This is considered a second-generation retinoid because its chemical structure is different than naturally occurring retinoids. The brand name is Differin, and it is more stable when exposed to the sun and less irritating. The prescription EpiDuo contains adapalene and benzoyl peroxide to help fight acne. In recent news, adapalene is now available as a generic.

4.Tazarotene: A third-generation retinoid, this is stronger than adapalene, less irritating and more sun-stable. I like it for patients who have been able to tolerate tretinoin and/or adapalene without any problems.

5.Retinol: This is the over-the-counter version of tretinoin, but the big drawback is that it’s very unstable, and the product packaging is crucial for its effectiveness. Johnson & Johnson has had the patent on retinol packaging, which is why my favorite OTC retinols are from RoC and Neutrogena. It’s much weaker than tretinoin, but studies do show it works to improve wrinkles. I like to start my patients on retinol and then work them up to tretinoin, and then tazarotene.

6.Retinyl esters (retinyl palmitate and retinyl linoleate): These ingredients are broken down into retinol once they’re applied to the skin. However, it takes time for them to absorb which is why there’s some controversy surrounding retinyl palmitate—based on a report by the Environmental Working Group. They aren’t irritating (because they don’t really absorb), but they don’t really work, so I say skip them.

7.Retinaldehyde: This penetrates better than retinyl esters, but not as well as retinol (which is why it’s less irritating). If you’re looking for results and bang for your buck, stick with retinol or a prescription.

(From Retinoids: An Essential Ingredient for “Wrinkled” SkinSkin Type Solutions LibraryTips)

As great as Retin-A is for the skin many people cannot use it because it causes them too much irritation.  The Vogue article The Return to Retinol explains:

The thing is, Retin-A and its various prescription descendants (Renova, Tazorac, Differin)—may have launched a thousand lineless faces, but they also launched as many irritated ones: scaly, red, angry. In those early days (fifteen years ago), retinoids could be used only at night because of their sensitivity to light; they could make skin extra-sensitive and made time in the sun, even incidental exposure, a cardinal sin. “Everyone was really excited from the beginning, but the big issues were dryness and irritation—mostly because people would apply too much,” says dermatologist Fredric Brandt, M.D., the New York– and Miami-based skin-care Svengali who has thousands of seemingly ageless women in his thrall (retinoid enthusiasts Madonna and Gwyneth Paltrow included). But even when skin wasn’t in outright crisis mode, a telltale sort of “retinoid face” could develop: spookily taut and shiny, like Barbie plastic. This is because the retinoic-acid molecule works a little too well: It’s so tiny it can penetrate all the layers of the skin, prompting extra-speedy cell turnover and exfoliation in the process. “You’re helping fix photo-aging, brown spots, acne, roughness, and collagen breakdown,” says Brandt. Miraculous, yes; gentle, no.

So what can you do in order to prevent irritation if you want to use Retin-A (and I personally strongly recommend Retin-A for those people who want to combat the signs of aging or who have acne and have tried numerous other anti-acne treatments to no avail), but cannot live with flaky, irritated, and red skin?  Start off slowly – use a retinol, an OTC product, before using a prescription product. You can try a product that is meant for sensitive skin like ROC Retinol Correction Sensitive Night Cream  (truthfully I don’t know how well this product works, but it worth a try if you have sensitive skin or are wary of trying a stronger product)  first before working your way up to a stronger product.  In a sense you will prepare your skin to tolerate stronger prescription products in the future.  According to Dr. Ellen Marmur in her book Simple Skin Beauty there are a few other ways to prevent skin irritation associated with using Retin-A (pages 278-279):

Prescription retinoids are the strongest and most effective form of retinoic acid.  Over-the-counter products contain milder vitamin A analogs; either retinol or retinyl palmitate (retinyl palmitate beign the weakest).  In order to have an effect on retinoid receptors, these must be converted to retinoic acid inside the body, and that conversion may not happen with the trace amount of low-strength vitamin A contained in a beauty product.  Although the results are therefore inconsistent, an OTC retinol might be worth at try if you’re skittish about using a prescription medication or if you have especially sensitive skin.  Stabilized, high-strength retinol may be somewhat effective, but look for one that states the percentage of retinol on the label.  Otherwise there’s probably just a tiny, ineffectual amount in the product.  (Personally, I would rather use a prescription retinoid with a percentage of medication that I know works.)

Side Effects:  Retinoic acid is a drug and there are risks associated with its use.  Since it decreases sebum (remember, this is still an acne medication), it makes the skin extremely dry.  (If that’s the case for you, applying moisturizer on top of retinoic acid is the answer, and it won’t dilute its potency.)  It makes the skin photosensitive, so daily sunscreen is a must – which is also why retinoic acid should be used at night.  It tends to irritate even moderately sensitive skin, so be careful not to overdo exfoliants such as glycolic acids (one a week is plenty).  For the same reason, be sure to stop using retinoids three to five days before having any skin procedures done, from simple waxing and facials to medical peels or lasers.  For those who have a hard time tolerating even a low-dose prescription retinoid, I recommend trying short-term applications: apply a pea-size amount over the whole face and neck, leave it on for fifteen minutes, then rinse it off.  You may get the same benefits as wearing it overnight.

Another thing to keep in mind is that even though having flaky and red skin is a side effect from using Retin-A it is a temporary one.  Your skin will get used to the product and those skin irritations will gradually disappear.  But if you live in a cold or dry climate your skin might constantly feel dry with Retin-A use.  Simply use a moisturizer twice daily at least or more if necessary to combat this dryness.  Be sure to wait about 10 or 15 minutes after applying your Retin-A before applying your moisturizer on top so that you allow the Retin-A to absorb properly into your skin.  Lastly, keep in mind that Retin-A comes in a wide variety of formulations.  Refissa, for instance, is a 0.05% tretinoin cream that is buffered so that it causes much less irritation for the user.  Many people do not peel at all when they use this product.

Summary of Different Ways to Prevent Irritation When Using Retin-A:

  • Only use a pea size amount for your entire face.  There is no need to use more.
  • Start off slow – use your Retin-A only twice a week or every other night for at least two weeks before determining if you want to use it more often.  For some people using Retin-A twice a week is enough.
  • If you are wary of using a prescription product start off with an OTC product.  Be sure to follow the manufacturer’s instructions for use.  After using a product like this for a few months you can move on to prescription one.
  • Ask for a prescription buffered product like Refissa if you know your skin is reactive and/or dry.
  • Work through the initial phase of irritation. That means be patient – you’ll see results in about three months.  Don’t give up on the product before then.  If you start and then stop and then start again using Retin-A your skin will get stuck in phase one of use.  Simply put your skin will constantly be irritated and red.
  • Use a moisturizer on top of your Retin-A.  Some of my favorite moisturizers to combine with Retin-A use are the renewal products from Epionce.  Be sure to wait at least 10 minutes after applying your Retin-A before applying a moisturizer on top.
  • Avoid irritating your skin further by overusing other facial exfoliating products like glycolic acid.  Products with Vitamin C can even be too irritating for some people if they are using Retin-A.
  • Use sun protection daily.

OTC Products 

I don’t want to call this recommended products since I haven’t tried any of them, but all the products below come from reputable companies:

Sources and Further Reading:

Image from anti-aging-skin-care-guide.com

 

Back in Vogue – Retin-A April 16, 2012

While we are in pursuit of the latest and greatest skincare ingredients and the newest products that promise to miraculously give us perfect skin overnight we can lose sight of the tried and true skincare ingredients and products that really work as promised.  Case in point – Retin-A.

Vogue magazine recently published an article about Retin-A extolling its virtues and explaining its history:

All retinoids—the umbrella name for a class of compounds that encompasses retinol, retinoic acid, retinyl palmitate, retinol aldehyde, and a host of others—are derivatives of vitamin A, one of the body’s key nutrients. Vitamin A’s mighty chemical makeup was identified in 1931, and the man who isolated and described it, Swiss chemist Paul Karrer, was rewarded with a Nobel Prize for his efforts. Retinol was a slightly rickety compound, prone to quick degeneration when exposed to oxygen and light. But by the 1960s, researchers were metabolizing retinol into its more stable (and more active) cousin retinoic acid and were beginning to understand its tremendous power in skin-care applications. Retin-A—a brand name for retinoic acid (also known as tretinoin)—was FDA-approved in 1971 as a prescription-strength treatment for acne, but dermatologists noticed almost immediately that a lot more than just breakouts were vanishing. Scores of patients began reporting a reduction in fine lines and hyperpigmentation, and the stampede began.

“Vitamin A is the go-to skin-care ingredient,” says Jennifer Linder, M.D., a Scottsdale, Arizona, dermatologist and chief scientific officer for the clinical line PCA Skin. “The best anti-ager is sunscreen; the next is vitamin A. Nothing else approaches it,” she says. Virtually all skin-care experts agree on this point—and in today’s world of peptides, growth factors, glacial water, and extracts from rare Corsican flowers, that’s saying a lot. “You can imagine that the question dermatologists get asked every single day is ‘What really works?’ ” says Linder. “Retinoids trigger change in the skin to make it look clearer and more youthful; they actually help skin get back to a healthier place. And there’s strong, strong clinical data behind that.”

What does Retin-A do exactly for the skin that is so effective?  Allure sums it up well:

HOW IT WORKS: Retinol speeds up cell turnover, sweeps away the dead cells that cause dullness, and boosts collagen and elastin by stimulating cellular repair at the deepest level of the skin. It also pumps up circulation by increasing blood-vessel formation, so skin looks healthier.

While Retin-A is the most effective anti-aging product on the market and can help erase both fine lines and acne for some people it can be irritating.  Known side effects of Retin-A include redness, irritation, dryness, and flakiness.  Keep in mind, though, that these side effects do not last forever.  After a few weeks, once your skin adjusts to the product, you will no longer experience those side effects.

Also remember that there are numerous prescription strengths and non-prescription versions of Retin-A available so there really is a formulation out there for everyone.  Once again I’ll turn to the Vogue article to explain:

In an attempt to tame the wildness of retinoic acid, researchers revisited its milder parent molecule, retinol. For decades it had been neglected as a skin-care ingredient because it was even trickier to stabilize than retinoic acid. The genius of retinol, researchers realized, is that it isn’t active when applied to skin. Retinol goes on in an inert form and is then switched to on-mode by your own skin. Your cells receive the retinol, hang on to it until they’re ready, and then convert only what they need into retinoic acid. This has tremendous benefits, says dermatologist Dennis Gross, M.D.: “It dramatically reduces the negative effects of retinoic acid—the peeling, sun sensitivity, redness—but has all the same fundamental results. It just takes a little longer to get there.”

The latest breakthrough has been in making retinol stable enough to live in a bottle with other active ingredients. (Until recently, says Linder, some over-the-counter products touting retinol as an active ingredient were largely ineffectual, as the retinol frequently degenerated well before application.) In the past few years, cosmeceutical companies have made big advances in the microencapsulation of retinol: The retinol molecules are each surrounded by a tiny polymer film, like a slim-fitting suit of armor that protects it from light, oxygen, and other aggressors. When you apply the cream to your face, you create chinks in the armor, which frees the retinol to do its work.

There are so many different ways to adjust Retin-A or retinol use.  You do not have to use it every night to get great results.  If you live in an area that is cold during the winter you can use your Retin-A twice a week during that season and then bump up your use during the summer when the weather is warmer and there is more humidity in the air.  You might need to experiment a bit, but in the end you’ll figure out the right strength and how many times you need to use it a week in order to see great results with your skin.

I love Retin-A so much (I use a prescription version that is 0.05% strength and apply it three times a week at night) that I always wonder why everyone isn’t using some version of Retin-A or retinol.  If you haven’t tried Retin-A yet consider it, and if you have used Retin-A or retinol in the past but stopped figure out a version that will work for you.

Sources and Further Reading:

My Related Post:
  • All About Retinol  - a relative older post of mine, but a goody (if I do say so myself)

Image from prescriptionmedications.biz

 

Anti-Aging Musts April 5, 2012

Creating an anti-aging skincare routine isn’t all that hard. If you keep a few key things in mind you’ll help your skin look great now and into the future.

Though I don’t advocate going crazy with anti-aging treatments when you are in your 20s do start thinking at that time about protecting your skin. As the Web MD article 10 Ways to Slow the Aging Process explains:

Think the early twenties is too soon to see signs of aging skin? Dermatologists see them commonly.

“The earliest signs of aging really start around the eyes. You can start to see some fine lines, and then on the face in general, some broken blood vessels and sun spots,” says Doris Day, MD, a dermatologist in private practice in New York City and clinical assistant professor of dermatology at New York University Medical Center. Typically, the more sun exposure, the greater the damage, she says.

Fortunately, the twenties and thirties are also prime decades for women to learn how to counter sun damage and other factors that age the skin, says Heidi Waldorf, MD, an associate clinical professor of dermatology at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine. She is also director of laser and cosmetic dermatology at the Mount Sinai Medical Center.

“What you do for your skin or against your skin will have ramifications as you age,” she says.

First, younger women must understand the pitfalls. For instance, Waldorf sees many who still embrace tanning. Often, they wrongly believe that skin aging is something to worry about down the road, not in their youth, Waldorf says.

Another common habit that damages young skin: smoking.

Ok so the article already mentioned two of the big no nos – sun and smoking. Here are more tips about those and other anti-aging musts:

  • Use sunscreen daily, even when it is overcast outside. When spending the day outside wear a hat and sunglasses, and reapply sunscreen every 2 to 3 hours when spending the day outdoors. Don’t forget that you get lots and lots of sun exposure even when you are going about your normal daily activities like driving, walking around the neighborhood, sitting by a window, and running errands.
  • Don’t smoke – smoking ruins your skin is so many ways. See my post below for more information about smoking and your skin.
  • Maintain a healthy lifestyle – exercise, practice relaxation techniques, and eat right. When you take good care of yourself it shows in your skin.
  • Use skincare products with antioxidants in them to protect your skin from pollution, free radicals, and the sun.
  • Use a retinol or prescription Retin-A skincare product starting in your 30s in order to correct skin damage, smooth your skin, build collagen, and treat acne (if you need to).

My Related Posts:

Sources and Further Reading:

Image from hghwatch.com

 

All About Retinol April 6, 2010

As far as anti-aging ingredients go retinol is a superstar.  And the great thing about retinol is that it not only fights the effects of aging it also helps clear acne and hyperpigmentation as well.

Retinol refers to the entire Vitamin A molecule and were originally introduced in skincare products 1971 when Retin-A came on the market.  When applied topically retinol functions as both an antioxidant and as a cell-communicating ingredient.  Being a cell-communicating ingredient means that retinol helps speed up skin cell turnover and helps the skin create healthier skin cells.  Retinol also helps the body get rid of dead skin cells.  Additionally, retinol has been shown to increase the body’s collagen production which means that when you retinol you will find that your skin is firmer and has an improved texture.

 

Treating Acne with Prescription Retinols

Since these topical retinoid medications improve the shape and functioning of the pores they very effective in treating acne when used with antibacterial agents because they allow the anti-bacterial agents to reach their target.  It is a common misconception that retinoids act like exfoliants – stripping off the top layers of the skin.  Instead retinoids are skin cell normalizers.  This means that they send-off chemical messengers whose molecules bind to receptors in the nucleus of skin cells in order to change that cell’s behavior.  So instead of keratinocytes accumulating and sticking together in the pores the keratinocytes exit the pores in a normal fashion.  Unfortunately, while they are extremely effective in treating acne retinoids can be very irritating to the skin.  Different retinoid options exist.  Retin-A, Renova, Retin-A Micro, Tazorac, and Avita are some of the most popular retinoids available through prescription.  These different topical treatments are available in cream and gel form and in different strengths.  Exposure to sunlight can degrade the effectiveness of the product so most doctors suggest applying it at night.  Another thing to be aware of is that retinoids can be inactivated by benzoyl peroxide so it is important to remember to use these two products at different times of the day.  After cleansing the face apply your tretinoin product.  Follow with a moisturizer to help prevent irritation and be sure to use a broad spectrum sunscreen during the day.

If you find the above mentioned retinoid products to be too irritating than Differin, the trade name of the synthetic retinoid adapalene, might be a better fit for you since it is considered the least irritating of all the topical retinoids. Women in particular like this product since it can be easily worn under make-up.  Differin works in the same way as the other retinoid products already highlighted above but it is neither affected by sunlight or benzoyl peroxide.  It is available in cream, gel, and solution form.

 

Retinols in Anti-Aging Products

 

There are a few different forms of retinol that you will find in skincare products targeted at anti-aging.  The different forms of retinol include:

  • Retinoic Acid or Trentinoin.  This is a synthetic derivative of Vitamin A, and it is the active ingredient in prescription strength retinoids.  Prescription strength retinoids work the fastest since they are already formulated as retinoic acid and they body doesn’t need to convert retinol into retinoic acid.  These formulations are strong and can cause irritation, flakiness, and redness.  Some doctors suggest using OTC retinols first before using prescription strength retinols so that your skin becomes used to the ingredient.  Use it at night, and at first only use it a few times a week so that your skin learns to tolerate the ingredient.  You’ll see results in 8 to 12 weeks.   Consider trying:  Renova, Refissa, or Retin-A.
  • Over the counter (OTC) retinol products will contain retinol, retinyl palmitate, reinylaldehyde, or retinyl acetate.  To really get your money’s worth you want to buy a product with retinol in it.  OTC retinol products work slower than prescription ones because the body needs to convert the retinol into retinoic acid.  The upside to using a OTC product as opposed to a prescription one is that you should experience much less or none of the irritation, flakiness, or dryness that you would with a prescription product. 

             Consider Trying:

  

Please note:  If you are pregnant or nursing doctors recommend that you do not use any retinol products – prescription or OTC.

 

 

Packaging is Important

 

Retinol is unstable so it is important to make sure that your retinol skincare product is properly packaged.  Your product needs to be protected from light so it should come in an aluminum tube or dark glass/plastic package.  Don’t buy a retinol product is a clear container.  Additionally, in order to maintain its effectiveness the product should be in a tube or pump form.

Sources and Further Reading

 

 

 
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